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Wilful Defaulters – RBI Guidelines for Banks



Rajesh Goyal 


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Definition of Wilful Defaulter


Who is a Wilful Defaulter

Clarifications on the Points of Wilful Defaulter

A "wilful default" would be deemed to have occurred if any of the following events is noted :



a) The unit has defaulted in meeting its payment / repayment obligations to the lender even when it has the capacity to honour the said obligations.


(b) The unit has defaulted in meeting its payment / repayment obligations to the lender and has not utilised the finance from the lender for the specific purposes for which finance was availed of but has diverted the funds for other purposes.


 Diversion of funds, include any one of the under noted occurrences:

(a) utilisation of short-term working capital funds for long-term purposes not in conformity with the terms of sanction;

(b) deploying borrowed funds for purposes / activities or creation of assets other than those for which the loan was sanctioned;

(c) transferring funds to the subsidiaries / Group companies or other corporates by whatever modalities;

(d) routing of funds through any bank other than the lender bank or members of consortium without prior permission of the lender;

(e) investment in other companies by way of acquiring equities / debt instruments without approval of lenders;

(f) shortfall in deployment of funds vis-à-vis the amounts disbursed / drawn and the difference not being accounted for.


(c) The unit has defaulted in meeting its payment / repayment obligations to the lender and has siphoned off the funds so that the funds have not been utilised for the specific purpose for which finance was availed of, nor are the funds available with the unit in the form of other assets.


Siphoning of funds, is  construed to occur if any funds borrowed from banks / FIs are utilised for purposes un-related to the operations of the borrower, to the detriment of the financial health of the entity or of the lender. The decision as to whether a particular instance amounts to siphoning of funds would have to be a judgement of the lenders based on objective facts and circumstances of the case.

The identification of the wilful default should be made keeping in view the track record of the borrowers and should not be decided on the basis of isolated transactions/incidents. The default to be categorised as wilful must be intentional, deliberate and calculated.

The identification of the wilful default should be made keeping in view the track record of the borrowers and should not be decided on the basis of isolated transactions/incidents. The default to be categorised as wilful must be intentional, deliberate and calculated.

(d) The unit has defaulted in meeting its payment / repayment obligations to the lender and has also disposed off or removed the movable fixed assets or immovable property given by him or it for the purpose of securing a term loan without the knowledge of the bank/lender.



 End-use of Funds

In cases of project financing, the banks / FIs seek to ensure end use of funds by, inter alia, obtaining certification from the Chartered Accountants. The banks and FIs,  should not depend entirely on the certificates issued by the Chartered Accountants but strengthen their internal controls and the credit risk management system to enhance the quality of their loan portfolio.

Some of the illustrative measures that could be taken by the lenders for monitoring and ensuring end-use of funds:

(a) Meaningful scrutiny of quarterly progress reports / operating statements / balance sheets of the borrowers;

(b) Regular inspection of borrowers’ assets charged to the lenders as security;

(c) Periodical scrutiny of borrowers’ books of accounts and the no-lien accounts maintained with other banks;

(d) Periodical visits to the assisted units;

(e) System of periodical stock audit, in case of working capital finance;

(f) Periodical comprehensive management audit of the ‘Credit’ function of the lenders, so as to identify the systemic-weaknesses in the credit-administration.

(It may be kept in mind that this list of measures is only illustrative and by no means exhaustive.)









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RBI Clarification issued on 9th September, 2014 : In view of references received from a few banks regarding scope/definition of “wilful default”, it is clarified as follows:

·         The term ‘lender’ appearing in the circular covers all banks/FIs to which any amount is due, provided it is arising on account of any banking transaction, including off balance sheet transactions such as derivatives, guarantee and Letter of Credit.


·         The term ‘unit’ appearing therein has to be taken to include individuals, juristic persons and all other forms of business enterprises, whether incorporated or not. In case of business enterprises (other than companies), banks/FIs may also report (in the Director column) the names of those persons who are in charge and responsible for the management of the affairs of the business enterprise.


RBI Clarification issued on 9th September, 2014  (Paragraph 2.6 of the circular has been amended and now reads as under :

“While dealing with wilful default of a single borrowing company in a Group, the banks /FIs should consider the track record of the individual company, with reference to its repayment performance to its lenders. However, in cases where guarantees furnished by the companies within the Group on behalf of the wilfully defaulting units are not honoured when invoked by the banks /FIs, such Group companies should also be reckoned as wilful defaulters”.

4. In connection with the guarantors, banks have raised queries regarding inclusion of names of guarantors who are either individuals (not being directors of the company) or non-group corporates in the list of wilful defaulters. It is advised that in terms of Section 128 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the liability of the surety is co-extensive with that of the principal debtor unless it is otherwise provided by the contract. Therefore, when a default is made in making repayment by the principal debtor, the banker will be able to proceed against the guarantor/surety even without exhausting the remedies against the principal debtor. As such, where a banker has made a claim on the guarantor on account of the default made by the principal debtor, the liability of the guarantor is immediate. In case the said guarantor refuses to comply with the demand made by the creditor/banker, despite having sufficient means to make payment of the dues, such guarantor would also be treated as a wilful defaulter. It is clarified that this would apply only prospectively and not to cases where guarantees were taken prior to this circular. Banks/FIs may ensure that this position is made known to all prospective guarantors at the time of accepting guarantees.


Limit for Reporting Purposes :


 The above indicates that there is no minimum amount to declare a borrower as willful defaulter.  However, for reporting purposes RBI has set certain limits.

(a)   All cases of wilful default (non-suit filed accounts) with outstanding of  Rs.25 lakh & above are required to be reported to RBI on quarterly basis only upto September 2014.    However, in terms of Credit Information Companies (Regulation) Act, 2005, banks/FIs are advised to furnish the aforementioned data in respect of wilful defaulters (non-suit filed accounts) of Rs. 25 lakhs and above for the quarter ending December 31, 2014 to CICs and not to RBI. Thereafter, banks/FIs may continue to furnish data in respect of wilful defaulters to CICs on a monthly or a more frequent basis. This would enable such information to be available to the banks/FIs on a near real time basis.


(b)    Banks/FIs should submit the list of suit-filed accounts of wilful defaulters of Rs.25 lakh and above as at end-March, June, September and December every year to a credit information company.  [Certificate of Registration has been granted to (i) Experian Credit Information Company of India Private Limited, (ii) Equifax Credit Information Services Private Limited, (iii) High Mark Credit Information Services Private Limited and (iv) Credit Information Bureau (India) Limited (CIBIL) to commence/carry on the business of credit information.          


Penal Action Against Whom ?


Keeping in view the present limit of Rs. 25 lakh fixed by the Central Vigilance Commission for reporting of cases of wilful default by the banks/FIs to RBI, any wilful defaulter with an outstanding balance of Rs. 25 lakh or more, would attract the penal measures stipulated by RBI in its circular.


Penal measures


The following measures are required to be initiated by the banks and FIs against the wilful defaulters as per RBI guidelines:

a) No additional facilities should be granted by any bank / FI to the listed wilful defaulters. In addition, the entrepreneurs / promoters of companies where banks / FIs have identified siphoning / diversion of funds, misrepresentation, falsification of accounts and fraudulent transactions should be debarred from institutional finance from the scheduled commercial banks, Development Financial Institutions, Government owned NBFCs, investment institutions etc. for floating new ventures for a period of 5 years from the date the name of the wilful defaulter is published in the list of wilful defaulters by the RBI.

 b) The legal process, wherever warranted, against the borrowers / guarantors and foreclosure of recovery of dues should be initiated expeditiously. The lenders may initiate criminal proceedings against wilful defaulters, wherever necessary.

 c) Wherever possible, the banks and FIs should adopt a proactive approach for a change of management of the wilfully defaulting borrower unit.

 d) A covenant in the loan agreements, with the companies in which the banks / notified FIs have significant stake, should be incorporated by the banks / FIs to the effect that the borrowing company should not induct a person who is a promoter or director on the Board of a company which has been identified as a wilful defaulter.





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